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Grape seed oil benefits or grape seed side effects
Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is an oil obtained by pressing grape seeds, it is also an
by-product of the wine-making process. It is a rich source of fatty acids, including linoleic acid and oleic acid. It
also has palmitic acid and stearic acid. Grape seed oil also contains a small amount of tocopherols and steroids
(campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of Vitamin E. Grape seed oil
is popularly used in salad dressing, or even skin moisturizer. It can also be used to stir food at low temperatures.
[Wikipedia, September 2011]
Grape seed oil is one of the dietary ingredients for Solaire and MegaNaturalTM Gold grape seed extract and
grape skin extracts.
A few websites suggest that grapeseed oil may reduce bad cholesterol in the arteries. However, there is no
animal or clinical study to demonstrate grape seed oil benefits. Researchers used grape seed oil to suspend
melatonin for subcutaneous injections in chicken. 
Since grapeseed oil contains more than 75% linoleic acid, it is interesting to discuss about the biological effect
of linoleic acid. Linoleic acid (LA) is know to induce proliferation and invasion in breast cancer cells.  Linoleic
acid stimulated growth of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines in culture. Human
MCF-7 breast cancer cells were incubated for 12 d in culture medium supplemented with various concentrations
(1.78-7.14 x 10(-5) M) of linoleic acid (LA) or CLA. Linoleic acid initially stimulated MCF-7 cell growth with an
optimal effect at concentrations of 3.57-7.14 x 10(-5) M, but was inhibitory at similar concentrations after 8 and
12 d of incubation. 
Article: Benefits of Linoleic Acid
 Nøddegaard F A method of achieving physiological plasma levels of melatonin in the chicken by oral
administration. J Pineal Res. 1999 Oct;27(3):129-38.  Espinosa-Neira R et al, Linoleic acid induces an
EMT-like process in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011 Sep 16.  Rose DP,
Connolly JM. Stimulation of growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture by linoleic acid. Biochem Biophys
Res Commun. 1989 Oct 16;164(1):277-83.  Shultz TD, Chew BP, Seaman WR., Differential stimulatory and
inhibitory responses of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid in culture.
Differential stimulatory and inhibitory responses of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid and
conjugated linoleic acid in culture.