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According to Wikipedia, catuaba refers to the bark of a number of trees - Trichilia catigua,
Erythroxylum vacciniifolium, Anemopaegma, Ilex, Micropholis, Phyllanthus, Secondatia,
Tetragastris and species from Myrtaceae. An infusion of the barks has been used as an
aphrodisiac and central nervous system stimulant. People believe that it may also have
benefits of sexual enhancement.
A Brazilian herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of
Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae),
Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger;
Zingiberaceae) is used as a body stimulant, energetic, tonic and aphrodisiac. 
Researchers from University of São Paulo, Brazil have shown that Trichilia catigua has
anti-inflammatory activities as Trichilia catigua inhibited phospholipase A2 activity in a
test-tube study. 
In a study, pretreatment of Catuaba casca (Erythroxylum catuaba Arr. Cam.) extracts
effectively protected mice from lethal infection of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus
aureus. The extracts are also found to inhibit the activities of the human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) effectively. 
Uchino T and co-workers from National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan, found that
extracts of Catuaba (Anemopaegma mirandum) could protect normal human epidermis
keratinocytes [NHEK(B)] against the cytotoxicity caused by SQOOH. 
 Barbosa NR, Fischmann L, Talib LL, Gattaz WF. Inhibition of platelet phospholipase A2 activity
by catuaba extract suggests antiinflammatory properties. Phytother Res. 2004 Nov;18(11):942-4.
 Oliveira CH, Moraes ME, Moraes MO, Bezerra FA, Abib E, De Nucci G. Clinical toxicology study
of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and
Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2005 Jan;19(1):54-7. 
Manabe H, Sakagami H, Ishizone H, Kusano H, Fujimaki M, Wada C, Komatsu N, Nakashima H,
Murakami T, Yamamoto N. Effects of Catuaba extracts on microbial and HIV infection. In Vivo.
1992 Mar-Apr;6(2):161-5.  Uchino T, Kawahara N, Sekita S, Satake M, Saito Y, Tokunaga H,
Ando M. Potent protecting effects of Catuaba (Anemopaegma mirandum) extracts against
hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity. Toxicol In Vitro. 2004 Jun;18(3):255-63.