Cyanidin - potential health benefits - research study on cancer,
diabetes and arthritis. ZHION.COM
updated on July 22, 2011, Send your comment to zhion@zhion.com
Cyanidin and its glycosides belong to the anthocyanins, a widespread class of
water-soluble plant compounds that are responsible for the brilliant color (red,
orange, blue) of fruits and flowers. They are widely ingested by humans as it
has been estimated a daily intake around 180 mg, mainly deriving from fruits
and red wines. [1]

Cyanidin Benefits
Cyanidin and its glycosides (Cy and Cyg) have been indicated as promising
candidates as dietary compounds with a potential role in human health. They
are the largest class of water-soluble compounds in plants, where they are
responsible for the brilliant color (red, orange, blue) of fruits and flowers. As
natural compounds of several foods such as vegetables, fruits and red wines,
they are estimated to be widely ingested by humans. [2] Cyanidin may benefit
people at risk of different conditions such as cancers, diabetes and arthritis:

Cyanidin Benefits on Cholesterol Levels
Incubation of whole blood of hypercholesterolemic patients with quercetin and
cyanidin 3-glucoside resulted in statistically significant reduction of
cholesterol
concentration in erythrocytes down to 75% (at 10 μmol/L of polyphenols) and
69% (at 100 μmol/L of polyphenols) of initial values. [Duchnowicz P et al, Eur J
Nutr. 2011 Jul 14.]

Cyanidin Benefits on Diabetes
When cyanidin is conjugated to form cyanidin-3-rutinoside, the resulting
compound alleviates postprandial hyperglycermia, it retards absorption of
carbohydrates by inhibition of α-glucosidase which may be useful as a potential
inhibitor for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. [Adisakwattana S et
al, J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011 Jul;49(1):36-41]

Male diabetic rats received cyanidin-3-glucoside (10mg/kg; i.p.) on alternate
days for 8 weeks one week after streptozotocin diabetes induction. Results: It
was found out that treatment of
diabetic rats with cyanidin-3-glucoside exerted a
hypoglycaemic effect and attenuated the increased malondialdehyde content
and reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase in aortic tissue. Maximum
contractile response of endothelium-intact aortic rings to phenylephrine was
significantly lower in cyanidin-3-glucoside-treated diabetic rats. [Nasri S et al,
Pathophysiology. 2011 May 3].

Cyanidin Benefits - on Cancer
In the United States, the primary cancer in elderly men is prostate cancer (33%
of newly diagnosed malignancies), but the prevalence is 75% lower in some
Mediterranean countries. A possible explanation for the large difference in
prostate cancer cases is that in Mediterranean countries the diet includes fish,
olive oil and high amounts of nuts, fruits, vegetables, along with a regular intake
of wine with meals. Epidemiological evidence indicates that polyphenolic
compounds in diets are protective against cancer, and cyanidin and kaempferol
are abundant in wine and plants. [3]

The LNCaP prostate cancer cells represent the non-aggressive androgen-
dependent cell model that expresses moderate levels of cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2). Researchers found cyanidin and kaempferol at 1 microM reduced the
level of prostaglandin E2 in LNCaP cell cultures and also attenuated the effect
of arachidonic acid on increasing the amount of PGE2. Cyanidin reduced the
levels of COX-2 protein in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. [3]

Cyanidin Benefits - on Arthritis
Researchers induced arthritis in male Sprague Dauley rats and they assessed
the extent of
arthritis based on paw swelling. They found cyanidin could protect
the rats against the paws swelling, and alleviate the inflammatory reaction at the
joint. [4]

More evidence is needed to support its claims of health benefits.

This article is for reference only. If you have any question, please, consult with your
doctor. Please note that the performance of a supplement or extract in animal studies
may be different in human body. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ZHION 2011

Reference
[1] Galvano F et al, University of Reggio Calabria f.galvano@unict.it Cyanidins:
metabolism and biological properties. J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Jan;15(1):2-11
[2] Galvano F et al, Università degli Studi, fgalvano@unict.it Bioavailability, antioxidant and
biological properties of the natural free-radical scavengers cyanidin and related glycosides.
Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2007;43(4):382-93.
[3] Muñoz-Espada AC  et al, Cyanidin attenuates PGE2 production and cyclooxygenase-2
expression in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Sep;17(9):589-96.
Epub 2005 Nov 9
[4] He YH et al Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cyanidin from cherries on rat
adjuvant-induced arthritis Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Oct;30(20):1602-5
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