Patethine benefits

Patethine benefits - on cholesterol profiles
In 1981, Kaijivyama G et al reported the cholesterol-lowering effect of pantethine using cholesterol diet rats. [1]

In 1984, when Carrara et al were reporting the encouraging result on the cholesterol-lowering effect of pantetine on
experimental hypercholesterolemic rabbits [2] , Arsenio L. et al reported the efficacy of pantethine on the treatment
of hyperlipidemia, diabetes and atherosclerosis in their clinical study involving 37 hypercholesterolemic and/or
hypertriglyceridemic patients. [3]  In the same year, Gaddi A et al also demonstrated the pantethine's cholesterol-
lowering effect on 11 patients with type IIB hyperlipoproteinemia, 15 patients with with type IV, and 3 patients with
with an isolated reduction of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels [4]. Two years later, Bertolini S et al
demonstrated the therapeutic effectiveness of pantethine on hyperlipoproteinemic pediatric patients. [Int J Clin
Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. While, Binaghi P et al, Istitut Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milano, Italy, demonstrated that
pantethine was also effective on lowering cholesterol in women aged 45-55. [5]  In the same period of time, Cighetti
G et al, University of Milan, Italy, reported that pantethine exerted its cholesterol-lowering effect actually by
modulating the HMG-CoA reductase activity (i.e. cholesterol synthesis). [6]  In 1987, Arsenio L et al, Ospedali
Riuniti, Parma, Italy, discovered that pantethine could also exert its cholesterol-lowering effect via injection route. [7]

Pantethine fatty liver and pantethine dosage
In 1987, Eto M. et al, Asahikawa Medical College, Japan, showed the lowering effect of pantethine on plasma beta-
thromboglobulin and lipids in diabetes mellitus from their clinical trials. [8]  Later on, Donati C. et al concluded that
pantethine should be considered for the treatment of lipid abnormalities also in patients at risk such as those with
diabetes mellitus in their review paper. [9]  Two years later, Coronel F et al, Hospital Universitario San Carlos,
Madrid, Spain, confirmed Donati C.Â’s suggestion from their clinical studies. [10]

Beside the possible application in diabetes mellitus, Osono Y et al, Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan, found
that oral administration of
pantethine dosage of 600 mg a day could improve the conditions of fatty liver. [11]

Pantethine Benefits - Liver Protection
As early as 1957, Piccinellio O et al studied lipotropic & liver protective effect of pantethine in experimental liver
diseases induced by Handler diet & carbon tetrachloride. [12] . 13 years later, Sakamoto et al, studied the influence
of pantethine (PTSS), a derivative of pantothenic acid on experimentally injured liver in rabbits [13]  Consequently,
Nagiel-Ostaszewski et al, St. John's University, Jamaica, NY, reported protection by pantethine, pantothenic acid
and cystamine against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat [14]

Pantethine Benefits - Lens Opacification
Clark JI et al, University of Washington, Seattle, reported delay or inhibition of rat lens opacification using
pantethine [15]  While, Hiraoka T et al, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle reported Inhibition of
lens opacification during the early stages of cataract formation [16]

Pantethine Benefits - Anti-Oxidant Activities
Slyshenkov VS et al, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland, reported that pantothenic acid and
its related compounds protected the plasma membrane of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against the damage by
oxygen free radicals. [17]

Pantethine weight loss
It looks like, pantethine can help weight loss, but there is no scientific support. (up to the date of August 21, 2011

Pantethine Dosage
Users should discuss with their doctors to determine the pantethine dosage and if they should take pantethine.
Pantethine Benefits
Pantethine is a derivative of vitamin B5 and the stable disulfate form of pantetheine. Pantetheine is the
active component of Coenzyme A (CoA).  It has been reported that pantethine raises the levels of CoA, a
cofactor involved in several metabolic pathways including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.  It also has
been found that it may exert cholesterol-lowering effect on various population groups.
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[1] Hiroshima J Med Sci. 1981 Sep;30(3):215-20] 2] Atherosclerosis. 1984 Dec; 53 (3):255-64]  3] Acta Biomed Ateneo
Parmense. 1984;55(1):25-42] [4] Atherosclerosis. 1984 Jan;50 (1):73-83] [5] Minerva Med. 1990 Jun;81(6):475-9] [6]
Atherosclerosis. 1986 Apr;60 (1):67-77, Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Nov 25;963(2):389-93]. [7] Acta Biomed Ateneo
Parmense. 1987;58(5-6):143-52] [8] Artery. 1987;15(1):1-12] [9] Clin Ter. 1989 Mar 31;128(6):411-22] [10] Am J Nephrol.
1991;11(1):32-6[11] J Atheroscler Thromb. 2000;7(1):55-8].] [12] Farmaco [Prat]. 1957 Oct;12(10):799-822] [13] Zasshi
Tokyo Ika Daigaku. 1970 Jul;28(4):597-615] [14] Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1990 Feb;67(2):289-92]  [15] Exp
Eye Res. 1996 Jan;62(1):75-84]. [16] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Nov;36(12):2550-5]. [17] Free Radic Biol Med
1996;20(3):493]