Potential Health Benefits of Mangosteen Extracts, Supplements
mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., XanGo
The fruit hull of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., has been used for many years as a medicine for treatment of skin
infection, wounds, and diarrhea in Southeast Asia.  Mangosteen may also benefit people suffered from dysentery,
different urinary disorders, cystitis and gonorrhoea. Xanthones are important to mangostana's biological activities.
Mangosteen fruits, fruit juices have been sold widely as 'liquid botanical supplements'. Though there are scientific
supports for the benefits of certain mangosteen extracts, but evidence for the health benefits of these products is still
lacking. This article summarizes recent key findings about mangosteen benefits (July 7, 2013).
Potential Health Benefits
Ethanol extract of mangosteen was found to be able to inhibit IgE-mediated histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells with
greater potency than a water extract of Rubus suavissimus. Rubus suavissimus extract is an anti-allergy crude drug in
Japan.  RBL-2H3 cell line is a commonly used histamine-releasing cell line used in inflammation, allergy and
immunological research. [Passante E, Frankish N. Inflamm Res. 2009 Nov;58(11):737-45.]
A crude methanolic extract of the fruit hull of Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. inhibited the contractions of isolated
thoracic rabbit aorta induced by histamine and serotonin. It is suggested that alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin
are a histaminergic and a serotonergic receptor blocking agent.  Thus, mangosteeen may benefit certain people at
risk of allergy.
Autoimmune Disease and Skin Transplantation
Oral administration of isogarcinol, a chemical from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), in mice resulted in a dose-
dependent decrease in delayed type hypersensitivity and prolonged graft survival in allogeneic skin transplantation.
These findings suggest that isogarcinol could serve as a new oral immunomodulatory drug for preventing transplant
rejection, and for long-term medication in autoimmune diseases. [PLoS One. 2013 Jun 13;8(6):e66503]
Extracts of mangosteen exhibited antioxidative activities and neuroprotective activity on NG108-15 cells in a study. The
highest activity was observed at the concentration of 50 microg/ml for both the water and 50% ethanol extracts. 
However, it is not sure if it can benefit people suffered from Alzheimer's disease, dementia or other kinds of neurological
degeneration or damage.
Mangosteen may benefit people at risk of certain cancers, as it shows promising data in test-tube studies.Anti-cancer
effects of crude alpha-mangostin (a major xanthone derivative in mangosteen) was shown in short-term colon
carcinogenesis bioassay system.  While in another study, six xanthones from the pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia
mangostana, showed inhibitory effects on the cell growth of human leukemia cell line HL60.  It was also found that
Alpha-mangostin preferentially targets mitochondria in the early phase, resulting in indication of apoptosis in HL60 cells.
Six xanthone compounds from the rinds (peel) of the fruits of mangosteen were found to have cytotoxic effect on a panel
of 14 different human cancer cell lines, including HCC cell lines and other gastric and lung cancer cell lines. 
Mangosteen was later also found to have antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell
Though mangosteen showed exciting data and it may benefit people at risk of certain cancers, clinical studies are
needed to ensure its biological effects.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease in the world. One therapeutic approach for treating diabetes is inhibition
of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels. A study shows that Garcinia
mangostana (mangosteen) may benefit people at risk of diabetes with this mechanism. Loo AE and Huang D at National
University of Singapore have studied the alpha-amylase inhibitor activity of mangosteen. They found that oligomeric
proanthocyanidins with little gallate moiety of mangosteen have a high alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. [J Agric Food
Chem. 2007 Nov 28;55(24):9805-10]
To understand how mangosteen juice may benefit people at risk of diabetes, researchers at Medicus Research LLC.,
USA, conducfed a clinical study. The study included four groups including placebo and three difference doses of the test
product, XanGo Juice: 3, 6 or 9 oz twice daily. They found a trend towards a decrease in BMI in the juice groups, and no
side effects reported in any of the groups. Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight
that applies to adult human being; normal weight = 18.5–24.9, overweight = 25–29.9 . [Udani JK et al, Nutr J. 2009 Oct
Alpha-Mangostin, from the stem bark of mangosteen, was found to be active against vancomycin resistant Enterococci
and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).  The polysaccharides from mangosteen was found to inhibit
the growth of Salmonella enteritidis in cultured monocyte.  It may offer health benefits on this aspect, but clinical
studies are needed to verify this concept.
Inflammation and Insulin Resistance
Obesity-associated inflammation is characterized by recruitment of macrophages into white adipose tissue and
production of inflammatory cytokines, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Certain xanthones, such as
alpha- and gamma-mangostin, found in mangosteen, have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. In a test-tbue
study, gamma-mangostin was found to attenuate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in macrophages and insulin
resistance in adipocytes, possibly by preventing the activation of several key chemicals, which are central to
inflammatory cytokine production in white adipose tissue. [Bumrungpert A, et al, J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):842-7]
Skin Aging, Facial Wrinkling
Twenty healthy female subjects with facial wrinkling, a Rao-Goldman wrinkle scale score of 2 or above, were applied with
either Vitaphenol Skin Cream (green and white teas, mangosteen, and pomegranate extract) or placebo cream to a
randomized half of their face twice daily for 60 days and returned for follow-up after 2 weeks. Twice as many subjects
indicated an enhancement of skin texture (eg, reduction in pore size, roughness, and touch) with the usage of
Vitaphenol versus placebo. PRIMOS images from periorbital skin treated with Vitaphenol demonstrated an average
improvement in skin smoothness of 1 mm3. Thus, this composition may benefit people at risk of skin aging. [J Drugs
Dermatol. 2007 Nov;6(11):1141-8]
Skin conditions, Acne
Certain mangosteen fruit rinds extracts showed anti-acne activity against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus
epidermidis. [Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):182-6.] Propionibacterium acnes is the relatively slow-growing, typically
aerotolerant anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium (rod) linked to the skin condition acne. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a
bacterium. It is part of human skin flora (commensal), and consequently part of human flora. S. epidermidis is not usually
pathogenic, but patients with compromised immune systems are often at risk for developing an infection. [Wikipedia,
2013] P. acnes have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. [Fitoterapia. 2007 Sep;
Mangosteen may enhance immunity.
Thai researchers extracted the polysaccharides from mangosteen and found these extracts inhibited the growth of
Salmonella enteritidis in cultured monocyte. 
Research Studies on Mangosteen Juice
Limited research has been done on mangosteen juice. Anyway, gartanin found in mangosteen juice showed to be able
to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines from different stages of human urinary bladder cancer. [Liu Z et al, Nutr Cancer.
2013;65 Suppl 1:68-77] Lobb AL at Dartmouth College states that the marketing claims overstate the significance of
findings, and fail to disclose severe methodological weaknesses of the research they cite. [
Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2012 Feb;71(2):46-8]
A case of severe lactic acidosis associated with the use of mangosteen juice as a dietary supplement has been reported.
[Wong LP, Klemmer PJ, Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 May;51(5):829-33.]
Herbs may benefit people at risk of diabetes: Stevia
 Chairungsrilerd N, et al, Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant
Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med. 1996 Oct;62(5):471-2.  Weecharangsan W, et al, Antioxidative and
neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). Med Princ Pract.
2006;15(4):281-7.  Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG, Dharmaratne HR. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin
against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):203-8.
 Nabandith V, et al, Inhibitory effects of crude alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, on two different categories of
colon preneoplastic lesions induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine in the rat. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2004 Oct-Dec;5(4):
433-8.  Matsumoto K, et al, Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human
leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Nov 15;12(22):5799-806.  Moongkarndi P, et al, Antiproliferative activity
of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Fitoterapia. 2004 Jun;75(3-4):375-7. 
Chanarat P, Chanarat N, Fujihara M, Nagumo T. Immunopharmacological activity of polysaccharide from the pericarb of
mangosteen garcinia: phagocytic intracellular killing activities. J Med Assoc Thai. 1997 Sep;80 Suppl 1:S149-54. 
Nakatani K, et al, Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone
derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9.  Nakatani K, et al,
Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull.
2002 Sep;25(9):1137-41.  Ho CK, et al, Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against
hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):975-9.  Matsumoto K, et al, Induction of apoptosis
by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod. 2003 Aug;66(8):1124-7.
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