EGCG side effects, EGCG benefits             August 20 2011
EGCG green tea, supplement, weight loss, supplement, dosage, pills, capsules, tablets
The compound (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major catechin found in green tea [Camellia
sinensis L. Ktze. (Theaceae)]. This polyphenolic compound and several related catechins are believed to
be responsible for the health benefits associated with the consumption of green tea. Increasing evidence
has suggested that EGCG exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunosuppressive effects. [4]
The potential health benefits ascribed to green tea and EGCG include antioxidant effects, cancer
chemoprevention, improving cardiovascular health, enhancing weight loss, protecting the skin from the
damage caused by ionizing radiation, and others. [6] Nagle DG at The University of Mississippi pointed
out that a few well-designed double-blinded controlled clinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of green
tea extracts and purified EGCG products in patients. [6]

What are the recent scientific suggestions for health benefits of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)?

EGCG MAY BENEFIT BONE HEALTH
Researchers from University of Toronto proposed the benefits of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)on
bone health. In the study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)at concentrations of 1-5 muM caused a
dose-dependent increase in the number and area of mineralized bone nodules. [1]

EGCG MAY HAVE BENEFITS IN DIABETES
Researchers from University of Dundee, Scotland commented the insulin-like glucose-lowering properties
of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in mammals. EGCG is known to act at least in part by repression of
gluconeogenic genes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Their study shows EGCG exerts its
insulin mimetic effects at least in part by phosphorylation of the FOXOs through a mechanism that is
similar but not identical to insulin and IGF-1 induced FOXO phosphorylation.

Researchers from other group administrated rats with subtotal nephrectomy plus streptozotocin injection
with(-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (ECGG). After a 50-day administration period, EGCG treated groups
showed suppressed hyperglycemia, proteinuria, and lipid peroxidation, though there were only weak
effects on the levels of serum creatinine and glycosylated protein. These results suggest that EGCG
ameliorates glucose toxicity and renal injury, thus alleviating renal damage caused by abnormal glucose
metabolism-associated oxidative stress involved in renal lesions of diabetic nephropathy. [8]

EGCG MAY HAVE BENEFITS IN CANCER
Green tea and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been extensively studied as a
potential treatment for various cancers. Epidemiological data have suggested that EGCG may provide
protective effects against hormone related cancers, namely breast or prostate cancer. Extensive in vitro
investigations using both hormone responsive and non-responsive cell lines have shown that EGCG
induces apoptosis and alters the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins that are critical for cell
survival and apoptosis. [3]

In a study, pretreatment of HEY and OVCA 433 ovarian carcinoma cell lines with green tea and EGCG
inhibited endothelin-1/ET(A)R expression, endothelin(A)R-mediated COX-1/2 mRNA expression, and
COX-2 promoter activity. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the
COX-1/2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Thus, EGCG may have benefits in ovarian
carcinoma. [12]

Later, Spinella F and co-workers further suggested that EGCG inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and
induced apoptosis that was associated with a decrease in Bcl-X(L) expression and activation of
caspase-3. Treatment with green tea or EGCG inhibited endothelin A receptor (ET(A)R)/endothelin-1
(ET-1) expression and reduced the basal and endothelin-1-induced cell proliferation and invasion. [10]

Tan M and co-workers at University of Mississippi proposed the direct administration of EGCG alone or in
combination with thymoquinone can limit PANC-1 cell proliferation in their in vitro studies. [10]

Researchers from Harvard Medical School evaluated the potential health benefits of (-)-
epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in multiple myeloma (MM). Basically, they found that EGCG induced
both dose- and time- dependent growth arrest and subsequent apoptotic cell death in multiple myeloma
cell lines including IL-6 dependent cells and primary patient cells; without significant effect on the growth
of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and normal fibroblasts. [11]

EGCG MAY HAVE BENEFITS IN INFLAMMATIONS
HEPATITIS
Researchers pretreated mice with (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) before concanavalin A injection,
and then measured alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in plasma, inflammatory infiltration and
hepatocyte apoptosis in liver. They found that mice pretreated with EGCG exhibited much less increased
ALT levels in plasma, reduced inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis in liver compared with
control mice pretreated with vehicle solutions.[4]

ARTHRITIS
Ahmed S and colleagues at University of Michigan Medical School found that EGCG was nontoxic to RA
synovial fibroblasts and  treatment with EGCG may be of potential benefits in inhibiting joint destruction in
rheumatoid arthritis. [6]

EGCG MAY HAVE BENEFITS IN NEURONAL DISORDER
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatments
of limited effectiveness are available. Preventing early misfolding steps and thereby aggregation of the
polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing protein huntingtin (htt) in neurons of patients may represent an
attractive therapeutic strategy to postpone the onset and progression of such disease. Here, researchers
demonstrated that polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) potently inhibits the aggregation of
mutant htt exon 1 protein in a dose-dependent manner. [5]

EGCG MAY HAVE BENEFITS IN ANXIETY
Vignes M and co-workers at University of Montpellier II, France observed that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate
(EGCG) reversed GABA(A) receptor negative modulator methyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM)
inhibition on GABA currents in a concentration dependent manner. Behavioral tests in mice indicated that
EGCG exerted both anxiolytic and amnesic effects just like the benzodiazepine drug, chlordiazepoxide. [7]

EGCG MAY HAVE BENEFITS IN FUNGAL DISEASES
Japanese compared the antifungal activities of epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG)with six antifungal
agents, amphotericin B (AMPH), fluconazole (FLCZ), flucytosin (5FC), itraconazole (ITCZ), micafungin
(MCFG), and miconazole (MCZ)and concluded that EGCG has a comparable antifungal actvities on some
strains than some of these antifugal agents. [9]

Are there any side effects or interactions of EGCG?
Green tea is generally free of side effects. However, large amounts of green tea consumption may lead
to insomnia, anxiety, and other side effects caused by the caffeine content. Further,
EGCG benefits or
green tea side effects may also include the inhibition of iron absorption for some users.

On September 18, 2006, I found more than 500 scientific articles related to the health benefits of
epigallocatechin gallate.  I summarized only a few interesting of the most recent articles to demonstrate
its potential health benefits. Moreover, most of the studies are either in animals or in vitro.

THIS ARTICLE IS FOR YOUR INFORMATION ONLY. YOU SHOULD CONSULT WITH YOUR DOCTOR IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS. ALL
RIGHTS RESERVED 2011.

References [1] Vali B, et al, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases the formation of mineralized bone nodules by human osteoblast-like cells.
J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Sep 7[2] Anton S,et al, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) mimics insulin action on the transcription factor FOXO1a
and elicits cellular responses in the presence and absence of insulin.Cell Signal. 2006 Jul 25[3] Stuart EC et al, Role of epigallocatechin
gallate (EGCG) in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.Life Sci. 2006 Aug 5 [4] Wang Y et al, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects
mice from concanavalin A-induced hepatitis through suppressing immune-mediated liver injury.Clin Exp Immunol. 2006
Sep;145(3):485-92.[5] Ehrnhoefer DE, et al, Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-gallate modulates early events in huntingtin misfolding and
reduces toxicity in Huntington's disease models.Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Sep 15;15(18):2743-51. Epub 2006 Aug 7.[6] Nagle DG et al,
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Chemical and biomedical perspectives.Phytochemistry. 2006 Sep;67(17):1849-55. Epub 2006 Jul 31.
[6] Ahmed S et al, Regulation of interleukin-1beta-induced chemokine production and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation by
epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Aug;54(8):2393-401. [7] Vignes M et al,
Anxiolytic properties of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Brain Res. 2006 Jul 19. [8] Yamabe N, et al, Therapeutic
Potential of (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate on Renal Damage in Diabetic Nephropathy Model Rats.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jul 11. [9]
Park BJ, et al, Antifungal susceptibility of epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg) on clinical isolates of pathogenic yeasts.Biochem Biophys
Res Commun. 2006 Aug 25;347(2):401-5. Epub 2006 Jun 15.[10] Spinella F et al, Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits
the endothelin axis and downstream signaling pathways in ovarian carcinoma.Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Jun;5(6):1483-92.[10] Tan M, et al,
Effects of (-)epigallocatechin gallate and thymoquinone on proliferation of a PANC-1 cell line in culture.Biomed Sci Instrum.
2006;42:363-71. [11] Shammas MA, et al, Specific killing of multiple myeloma cells by (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate extracted from green
tea: biological activity and therapeutic implications.Blood. 2006 Jun 29. [12]Spinella F, et al, Antitumor effect of green tea polyphenol
epigallocatechin-3-gallate in ovarian carcinoma cells: evidence for the endothelin-1 as a potential target.Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006
Jun;231(6):1123-7.
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