Brown Seaweed (wakame)
Health Benefits and Side Effects   
Calendula Officinalis benefits
Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time
immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and
infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood
pressure and cholesterol. [6] Thus, one may believe that Calendula officinalis may have many health
benefits.

Calendula Officinalis Health Benefits

Microbes
A mouth-wash study of 18 patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction indicates
Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the
adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. [1]

Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting
in severe diarrhoea. Among 21 herbal extracts and four essential oils, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria
recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare showed the highest growth inhibition of
Campylobacter jejuni [2]

Cancer
An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure
its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. In the study, tumor cell lines derived from leukemias,
melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were
used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. The
Calendula Officinalis extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a
wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of
inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. The
intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of Calendula Officinalis extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo
tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. [7]

In another study, mice were injected with melanoma cells through the tail vein and simultaneously treated
with Calendula.officinalis flower extract. This simultaneous administration of Calendula.officinalis extract to
tumor bearing mice reduced the lung tumor nodules by 74% with 43.3% increase in life span. Calendula.
officinalis extract also lowered the elevated levels of hydroxyproline, uronic acid, hexosamine, serum sialic
acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. [3] Thus, Calendula Officinalis may benefit people suffered from certain
kinds of cancers.

Wound
Calendula Officinalis may benefit people with a wound. The effects of oral and topical application of
Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The percentage of
wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the non-treatment group showed only
51.1% on the eighth day of wounding. The days needed for re-epithelization (i.e. recovery) were 17.7 for
the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13
days, respectively. [5]

Heart Diseases
Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, researchers evaluated if calendula could
be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease. In a study, two groups of hearts were used: the treated
rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer for 15 min prior to subjecting the
heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved
cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing
myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing
ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. [6] Thus,
Calendula officinalis may have important benefits to people suffered from certain kinds of cardiac diseases.
Of course, clinical studies are needed to support this thought.


Clinical studies are needed to confirm these health claims. Please, discuss with your doctor before taking
any supplement or herbs.

[1] Faria RL, et al, Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against
the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars. J Appl Oral Sci.
2011 Oct;19(5):476-82. [2] Cwikla C, et al, Investigations into the antibacterial activities of
phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother Res. 2010 May;24(5):
649-56. [3] [3] Preethi KC, et al, Inhibition of metastasis of B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice by an
extract of Calendula officinalis L flowers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(6):1773-9. [4] Andersen FA, et
al, Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula
officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients. Int J Toxicol. 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6 Suppl):221S-43. [5] Preethi KC, et
al, Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;20
(1):73-9. [6] Ray D, et al, Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010 Dec;11(8):849-54. [7] Jiménez-Medina E, et al, A new extract of the plant
Calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation
BMC Cancer. 2006 May 5;6:119.
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