Bacopa monnieri plant reviews, benefits, side effects, dosages - ZHION.COM
- December 07, 2011
Bacopa monnieri Benefits - Reviews of Scientific Evidence
Bacopa monnieri has been used in the traditional system of Ayurvedic medicine to improve intelligence and memory
for a long time. In a study, male Wistar rats were orally given the alcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri at dosages of
20, 40 and 80 mg/kg BW via feeding needle for a period of 2 weeks before and 1 week after the
intracerebroventricular administration of ethylcholine aziridinium ion bilaterally. Ethylcholine aziridinium ion is a
chemical that can induce Alzheimer's disease in animals. Rats were tested for spatial memory using Morris water maze
test and the density of neurons and cholinergic neurons was determined using histological techniques 7 days after
AF64A administration.Bacopa monnieri extract improved the escape latency time in Morris water maze test. Moreover,
the reduction of neurons and cholinergic neuron densities were also mitigated. Thus, Bacopa monnieri is a potential
cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant, which may benefit people at risk of Alzheimer's disease. [A1] In another
study, Bacopa monnieri extract protected neurons from beta-amyloid-induced cell death. This neuroprotection was
possibly due to its ability to suppress cellular acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, culture medium containing
Bacopa monnieri extract appeared to promote cell survival compared to neuronal cells growing in regular culture
medium. Further study showed that Bacopa monnieri-treated neurons expressed lower level of reactive oxygen
species suggesting that Bacopa monnieri restrained intracellular oxidative stress which in turn prolonged the lifespan
of the culture neurons. Bacopa monnieri extract also exhibited both reducing and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities.
[A2] This explains why some researchers believe Bacopa monnieri has benefits against Alzheimer's disease.
Insufficient data on how bacopa monnieri may benefit people suffered from asthma.
A study of 54 subjects shows intake of Bacopa monnieri extract at dosage of 300 mg/day for 12 weeks improves the
conditions of depression. [A3] Though intake of Bacopa monnieri may benefit people suffered from depression, more
clinical studies are needed to confirm the results found.
Bacosine, a triterpene of Bacopa, significantly decreased blood glucose level in a study of diabetic rats. Bacosine
might have insulin-like activity and its antihyperglycemic effect might be due to an increase in peripheral glucose
consumption as well as protection against oxidative damage in alloxanized diabetes. However, it is not sure if bacosine
also benefits human with diabetes. 
Baccoside A, a chemical from Bacopa, suppressed epileptic-like seizure/convulsion in Caenorhabditis elegans. [6
Hippocampus is the major region of the brain belonging to the limbic system and plays an important role in
epileptogenesis, memory and learning. Decreased GABA receptors in the hippocampus have an important role in
epilepsy associated behavioral deficit, Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have clinical significance in the management
of epilepsy.  Thus, bacopa monnieri may benefit people at risk of epilepsy.
Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) Echinacea, Ashwagandha, or Brahmi for 4 weeks to
examine their effects on immune function. The Brahmi diet stimulated more secretion of IgA and IgG in the serum
compared to Echinacea or Ashwagandha. These herbal medicines might regulate antibody production by augmenting
both Th1 and Th2 cytokine production.  Thus, bacopa monnieri may have benefit of immuno-regulation.
Seventy-six adults aged between 40 and 65 years took part in a double-blind randomized, placebo control study.
There were three testing sessions: one prior to the trial, one after three months on the trial, and one six weeks after
the completion of the trial. The results show a significant effect of the Brahmi on a test for the retention of new
information. Follow-up tests showed that the rate of learning was unaffected, suggesting that Brahmi decreases the
rate of forgetting of newly acquired information. Tasks assessing attention, verbal and visual short-term memory and
the retrieval of pre-experimental knowledge were unaffected.  In another study, Bacopa significantly improved verbal
learning, memory acquisition, and delayed recall in a study of 136 healthy older Australians.  Thus, bacopa may
benefit people at risk of memory issues.
In this study, the neuroprotective properties of Bacopa monnieri, against rotenone induced oxidative damage and
neurotoxicity was examined. Flies (Oregon K strain, adult males) exposed to a standardized Bacopa monnieri powder
for 7 days in the diet exhibited significant diminution in the levels of endogenous oxidative markers viz.,
malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl content.Bacopa monnieri offered complete protection against
rotenone (500 microM) induced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited dopamine depletion (head region, 33%; body
region, 44%) in flies. Flies exposed to rotenone+Bacopa monnieri exhibited a lower incidence of mortality (40-66%
protection) and performed better in a negative geotaxis assay (45-65%) both suggesting the neuroprotective potential
of Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, Bacopa monnieri also conferred significant resistance (43-54% protection) in a
paraquat oxidative stress bioassay. [A4]
Here is another study about Bacopa monnieri's potential benefits of anti-stress. The antistress effect of Bacopa
monnieri bacosides, dissolved in distilled water, was -studied in adult male Sprague Dawley rats by administering oral
dosages of 20 and 40 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days. In half of the animals treated with dosages of 20 or 40 mg/kg of
Bacopa monnieri bacosides, stress was given 2 h after the last dose. Stress was also administered to the animals
treated with distilled water alone. Bacopa monnieri bacosides, at both dosages, did not induce a significant change in
the expression of Hsp70 in any brain region studied while stress alone produced a significant increase in the Hsp70
expression in all the brain regions. A significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evident in
the hippocampus with the lower dose of Bacopa monnieri bacosides and in animals given stress alone, while an
increase in the activity of SOD was observed in the brain regions with the higher dose of Bacopa monnieri. An
increase in the activity of cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase (PROD) and
7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was observed in all the brain regions after exposure to stress alone and with
both doses of Bacopa monnieri bacosides although the magnitude of induction of P450 expression was less with a
higher dose of Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, stress when given to the animals pretreated with Bacopa monnieri
bacosides for 7 days resulted in a decrease in Hsp70 expression in all the brain regions with a significant decrease
occurring only in the hippocampus. Likewise the activity of SOD was found to be further reduced in all the brain
regions in the animals treated with the lower dose of Bacopa monnieri bacosides followed by stress. However, when
stress was given to the animals pretreated with the higher dosages of Bacopa monnieri bacosides, a significant
increase in the enzyme activity was observed in the cerebral cortex and in the rest of the brain while the activity of
SOD was reduced to a much greater extent in the cerebellum and in the hippocampus. Likewise, the activity of P450
enzymes was found to be restored to almost control levels in the animals given stress and pretreated with the higher
dose of Bacopa monnieri, bacosides while a lesser degree of induction, compared with animals treated with Bacopa
monnieri bacoside sor stress alone, was observed in the animals pretreated with the lower dose of Bacopa monnieri
and given stress. The data indicate that Bacopa monnieri bacosides has potential to modulate the activities of Hsp70,
P450 and SOD thereby possibly allowing the brain to be prepared to act under adverse conditions such as stress. [A5]
Thus, Bacopa monnieri bacosides may benefit people at stress.
Though Bacopa monnieri has been promoted to benefit or even to treat ulcer, evidence is insufficient to support this
Bacopa monnieri has been suggested to cure thyroid diseases by internet marketers. Though there is a mice study
suggesting the use of Bacopa monnieri (at dosage of 200 mg/kg) to cure hypothyroidism, [A6] there is no more other
studies to confirm the results.
Side effects, adverse events
Bacopa caused gastro-intestinal side-effects of increased stool frequency, abdominal cramps, and nausea in a study
of 136 older persons. 
 Fitoterapia. 2010 Jul;81(5):315-22]  Roodenrys S et al,Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Aug;27(2):279-81.] 
Morgan A et al, J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9]  Yamada K et al, J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17]
 Ghosh T. et al, Planta Med. 2011 May;77(8):804-8]  Seizure. 2010 Sep;19(7):439-42].  Mathew J et al,
Neurochem Res. 2011 Jan;36(1):7-16.] Morgan A et al, J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9] A1
Uabundit N, et al, Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri in Alzheimer's disease
model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 8;127(1):26-31. A2 Limpeanchob N, et al, Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa
monnieri on beta-amyloid-induced cell death in primary cortical culture. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Oct 30;120(1):112-7.
[A3] Calabrese C, et al, Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and
depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008
Jul;14(6):707-13. [A4] Hosamani R, Muralidhara. Neuroprotective efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against rotenone induced
oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Neurotoxicology. 2009 Nov;30(6):977-85 [A5] Chowdhuri
DK, et al, Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase
and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):639-45. [A6] Kar A, et al, Relative efficacy of
three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002
Bacopa monnieri plant reviews
Bacopa monnieri, a perennial, creeping herb, grows in wetlands and muddy shores. It is found in South East Asia including India, Taiwan as well as
Hawaii and southern part of The United States. Bacopa monnieri leaves are succulent and relatively thick. Its flowers are small and white.
Bacopa monnieri has been used as a Ayurvedic treatment for epilepy and asthma. However, it may also benefit mental performance; it may help in
concentration, comprehension, recall and alertness, thus, Bacopa is believed to be neuro-protective and benefit people suffered from epilepsy. 
According to Wikipedia.org., the sulfhydryl and polyphenol components of Bacopa monniera impact the oxidative stress cascade by scavenging
reactive oxygen species, inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and reducing divalent metals. This mechanism of action may contribute the effect of Bacopa
monniera extract in reducing beta amyloid deposits in mice with Alzheimer's disease. Bacopa monnieri has many active ingredients including
flavonoids, betulic acid, stigmastarol, beta-sitosterol, bacopasaponins and more.