Achyranthes bidentata Blume
Genus: Achyranthes Family: Amaranthaceae

Achyranthes bidentata Blume is a species of Achyranthes that grows in East Asia. Achyranthes is an erect perennial, it
has slender rambling branches, elliptical leaves, and greenish white flowers on terminal spikes. Achyranthes grows up
to 1m tall.
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Achyranthes bidentata uses
The seeds of A.bidentata are a good substitute for cereal grains used in bread making. Achyranthes bidentata
contains triterpenoid saponins.

Achyranthes leafy shoots are edible. Achyranthes bidentata is believed to have various health benefits, it has been
used in traditional Chinese medicine to stimulate menstruation, ease menstrual pain,relieve lower back pain, canker
sores, toothache, bleeding gums, nosebleeds.
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Achyranthees bidentata benefit - anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritis and analgestic effects.
Achyranthes bidentata was observed to inhibit the ear inflammation and alleviate the pain caused by hot plate in a
mice study. [4]

Korean researchers found oral administration of an extract from Achyranthes bidentata and Atractylodes japonica
could markedly inhibit collagen-induced arthritis, adjuvant-induced arthritis, and zymosan-induced inflammation. It also
inhibited carrageenan-induced acute edema and acetic acid-induced writhing response. [11]

Achyranthes bidentata benefits - on immune system / anti-cancer effects
Polysaccharides extracted from the root of Achyranthes bidentata induced interleukin-1 (IL-1) synthesis as well as
tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis and secretion from thioglycolate-primed mouse peritoneal
macrophages in vitro. [1] Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides prolonged the survival days of mice suffered from
Ehrlich carcinoma. These compounds promoted the plaque forming cells response to sheep red blood cells and serum
IgG level and also elevated the NK cell activity and serum TNF content in mice bearing S180 responses. [2]
Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides were also found to inhibit tumor growth via immuno-enhancement route by
another group. [3]

Researchers from Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College further supported this
observation of the immunomodulatory effects of the polysaccharides in a mice study. [5]

Achyranthes bidentata root benefits - on bone
Researchers from Shenyang Pharmaceutical University showed that ecdysterone from Achyranthes bidentata
promoted the proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells. [5] While another group found the oleanolic acid extracted
from Achyranthes bidentata has an anti-bone resorption effect. [14] It has also been shown to regenerate peripheral
nerve in rabbits. [15]

Root of Achyranthes bidentata showed a potent inhibitory activity on bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone
(PTH) in a bone organ culture using neonatal mouse parietal bones. A study revealed that the n-BuOH soluble fraction
of the root of Achyranthes bidentata is effective at preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats and has a great
potential as an alternative tool for the treatment of osteoporosis. [J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 3;127(2):229-34.]

Achyranthes bidentata saponins benefits
In a study of stroke-prone sponyaneously hypertension rats, achyranthes bidentata saponins were used through filing
stomach everyday for 20 days. Researchers found achyranthes bidentata saponins could markedly decrease brain
index, death rate of the rats after stroke. SAB could improve nerve state of SHRsp after stroke. Also SAB could prolong
survival time and prevent pathologic change of hippocampal neuron of SHRsp after stroke. [Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za
Zhi. 2011 May;36(9):1239-41]

Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract benefit - neural protection
Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract protects cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.
[J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21;122(3):547-54.]
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Composition - Achyranthes bidentata root [6-9]

Bidentatoside,. Bidentatoside II, and chikusetsusaponin V methyl ester.
n-butyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside, oleanoic acid, 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl], oleanoic acid
28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, allantoin, 20-hydroxy ecdysone, glutamic acid,
3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl], oleanoic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Achyranthesterone A
(2beta,3beta,14alpha,20S,21,22R,25-heptahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one, a phytosterone),
26-pentahydroxy-cholestan-7,12-dien-6-one

Researchers from Nanjing University isolated five oleanolic acid glycosides and they all inhibited the formation of
osteoclast-like multinucleated cells. [10]
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Achyranthes bidentata side effects
Researchers from Wenzhou Medical College reported Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides could against Lewis lung
cancer (LLC) in C57BL/6 mice. However, they noticed that high doses of the polysaccharides actually stimulated the
growth of the cancer in the mice! [12] Probably nobody wants this side effect.

Note Most of the studies are conducted in animals or in vitro. Clinical studies are needed to prove its use in human
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Reference:

[1] Xiang DB, Li XY. Effects of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides on interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha
production from mouse peritoneal macrophages. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1993 Jul;14(4):332-6. [2] Xiang DB, Li XY.
Antitumor activity and immuno-potentiating actions of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue
Bao. 1993 Nov;14(6):556-61. [3] Yu S, Zhang Y. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides (ABP) on antitumor
activity and immune function of S180-bearing mice Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1995 Jul;17(4):275-8. [4] Lu T, Mao C,
Zhang L, Xu W. The research on analgestic and anti-inflammatory action of different processed products of
Achyranthes bidentata Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Oct;20(10):507-9 [5] Li ZK, Li DD. The immunomodulatory effect of
Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1997 Dec;32(12):881-7. [5] Gao XY, Wang DW, Li FM.
Determination of ecdysterone in Achyranthes bidentata Bl. and its activity promoting proliferation of osteoblast-like
cells Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2000 Nov;35(11):868-70. [6] Mitaine-Offer AC, Marouf A, Pizza C, Khanh TC, Chauffert B,
Lacaille-Dubois MA. Bidentatoside I, a new triterpene saponin from Achyranthes bidentata. J Nat Prod. 2001
Feb;64(2):243-5. [7] Mitaine-Offer AC, Marouf A, Hanquet B, Birlirakis N, Lacaille-Dubois MA. Two triterpene saponins
from Achyranthes bidentata. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001Nov;49(11):1492-4. [8] Wang T, Cui SY, Suo YR, Lu RH.
Studies on water-soluble chemical constituents in root of Achyranthes bidentata Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004
Jul;29(7):649-52. [9] Meng DL, Li X, Wang JH, Li W. A new phytosterone from Achyranthes bidentata B1. J Asian Nat
Prod Res. 2005 Apr;7(2):181-4. [10] Li JX, Hareyama T, Tezuka Y, Zhang Y, Miyahara T, Kadota S. Five new oleanolic
acid glycosides from Achyranthes bidentata with inhibitory activity on osteoclast formation. Planta Med. 2005
Jul;71(7):673-9. [11] Han SB, Lee CW, Yoon YD, Lee JH, Kang JS, Lee KH, Yoon WK, Lee K, Park SK, Kim HM. Prevention
of arthritic inflammation using an oriental herbal combination BDX-1 isolated from Achyranthes bidentata and
Atractylodes japonica. Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Aug;28(8):902-8. [12] Jin LQ, Zheng ZJ, Peng Y, Li WX, Chen XM, Lu JX.
Opposite effects on tumor growth depending on dose of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides in C57BL/6 mice. Int
Immunopharmacol. 2007 May;7(5):568-77. Epub 2007 Jan 22. [13] Li X, Zhao W, Meng D, Qiao A. A new phytosterone
from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata. Fitoterapia. 2007 Dec;78(7-8):607-8. Epub 2007 May 10. [14] Li JF, Zhao Y,
Cai MM, Li XF, Li JX. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel series of heterocyclic oleanolic acid derivatives with
anti-osteoclast formation activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2008 Dec 31. [15] Ding F, Cheng Q, Gu X. The repair effects of
Achyranthes bidentata extract on the crushed common peroneal nerve of rabbits. Fitoterapia. 2008 Apr;79(3):161-7.
Epub 2007 Dec 5.
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