Kidney Problems
Long-term use (two years) of fish oil 4-8 grams daily may offer people in high risk with IgA nephropathy by slowing the loss of kidney function. Fish oil
also may benefit people with kidney disease as a result of diabetes by reducing the amount of protein in the urine. Please, note that the
recommended dosage for fish oil for most cases is up to 3 grams.

Bipolar disorder
Taking fish oil with the usual treatments may benefit people suffered from bipolar disorder by improving the symptoms of depression and increasing
the length of time between episodes of depression. But fish oil doesn’t seem to help to manic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder.

Psychosis
Taking a fish oil supplement might benefit young people with mild symptoms of psychotic illness.

Weight loss
Can fish oil have a benefit of weight loss? Several studies have suggested an added weight loss-enhancing benefit to fish oil. However, DeFina LF et
al, The Cooper Institute, Dallas, found Omega-3 fatty acids were not effective as an adjunct for weight loss in a otherwise healthy, overweight
population. [B1] While, Weed HG et al at The Ohio State University College of Medicine found an
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-containing protein-
and energy-dense nutritional supplement (i.e. a fish oil supplement) may help increase perioperative lean body mass in patients with head and neck
cancer-related weight loss. [B2]

Colitis in mice was induced by feeding 5% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 7 days.
docosahexaenoic acid (dosage: 30 mg/kg/day, DHA)
was administered orally. The DHA-treated group, i.e. the fish oil group, showed significant reduction of the weight loss and colon shortening
compared to the DSS-treated colitis group. DHA treatment also significantly reduced the changes in inflammation of the colon. [B3] Thus, it looks like
fish oil helps to reduce weight loss or has no benefits on weight loss.

Anyway, eating fish may benefit overweight people and people hypertension by improving weight loss and decreasing blood sugar. In a study, taking
a specific fish oil supplement 6 grams daily (Hi-DHA, NuMega) provided 260 mg DHA/gram and 60 mg EPA/gram, significantly decreased body fat
when combined with exercise.

Endometrial cancer
Eating about two servings of fatty fish per week may benefit women with a reduced risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Age-related macular degeneration
Eating fish more than once per week us associated with a lower risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.

Blood Vessel Re-blockage
Taking fish oil may benefit people by reducing the risk of blood vessel re-blockage after heart bypass surgery or “balloon” catheterization. Fish oil
appears to decrease the rate of re-blockage up to 26% when given for one month before the procedure and continued for one month thereafter.

Recurrent miscarriage in pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome
Taking fish oil seems to offer benefits to pregnant women by preventing miscarriage and increasing live birth rate with a condition called
antiphospholipid syndrome.

High blood pressure and kidney problems after heart transplant
Taking fish oil seems to benefit patients by preserving kidney function and reducing the long-term continuous rise in blood pressure after heart
transplantation.

Drug Damage
Cyclosporine is a medication that reduces the chance of organ rejection after an organ transplant. Fish oil might benefit patients by reducing some of
the unwanted side effects of treatment with this drug.

Dyspraxia
Taking fish oil orally, in combination with evening primrose oil, thyme oil, and vitamin E (Efalex, Efamol Ltd), seems to improve movement disorders in
children with dyspraxia.

Developmental coordination disorder (dcd)
A combination of fish oil (80%) and evening primrose oil (20%) seems to benefit children aged 5-12 years old with dcd by improving their reading,
spelling, and behavior.

Blockage of grafts used in kidney dialysis
Taking fish oil orally seems to benefit patients by preventing clot formation in hemodialysis grafts.

Psoriasis
Administering fish oil intravenously (by IV) can benefit patients by decreasing severe psoriasis symptoms. But taking fish oil by mouth doesn’t seem to
be effective on psoriasis.

High cholesterol
Fish oil in combination with vitamin B12 may provide a better benefit to patients by boost their ability to lower cholesterol. Fish oil may have effects on
lowering total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL). [B5] Not only human, does fish oil also
benefit rats! Low dose of fish oil supplementation (dosage 1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, in addition
to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity in obese rats. [B6] Low dose of fish oil supplementation (dosage 1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce
total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity in obese rats. [B6]

Coronary artery bypass surgery
Taking fish oil seems to offer health benefits by preventing coronary artery bypass grafts from re-closing following coronary artery bypass surgery.

Cancer-related weight loss
Taking a high dose (dosage 7.5 grams per day) of fish oil seems to benefit patients by slowing down weight loss. It is believed that these patients
may eat more because the fish oil is fighting depression and improving their mood.

Asthma
Fish oil may benefit infants and children by lowering the occurence of asthma when taken by women late in pregnancy. Fish oil seems to improve
airflow, reduce cough, and lower the need for medications in some children with asthma. [4]
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Gum infection (gingivitis).
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Liver disease.
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Leg pain due to blood flow problems (claudication).
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Migraine headaches.
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Muscle soreness caused by physical exercise.
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Breast pain.
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Skin rashes caused by allergic reactions.
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Stomach ulcers
Taking fish oil may not have any effect or benefits on patients with this condition.

Diabetes
Fish oil benefits people suffered from Type 2 diabetes by lowering triglycerides. Taking fish oil doesn’t seem to lower blood sugar in people with type
2 diabetes.
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Insufficient evidence to rate benefits of fish oil on allergies, Alzheimer's disease, atopic dermatitis, atrial fibrillation, depression, dry eye syndrome,
cancer, cataracts, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). chronic kidney disease, thinking skills (cognitive function), crohn’s disease, prediabetes, infant
development, ulcerative colitis, pregnancy complications, prematurity, salicylate intolerance, schizophrenia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),
irregular heartbeat, improving night vision in children with a disorder called dyslexia, and other conditions.
____________________________________________________________________________________________

A few more comments on fish oil benefits...

Allergies
Though there is insufficient evidence for fish oil benefits on allergies, but supplementation of the maternal diet in pregnancy with omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a non-invasive intervention with significant potential to prevent the development of allergic and possibly
other immune-mediated diseases. [2]

Acne
Does fish oil benefit people suffered from acne? Acne vulgaris is associated with significant psychological disability. The psychological impairments in
acne include higher rates of depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal thoughts. Despite a paucity of clinical research, patients with skin conditions
and/or mental health disorders are frequent consumers of dietary supplements. An overlap may exist between nutrients that potentially have both
anti-acne and mood regulating properties; examples include omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, chromium, zinc and selenium. [B4] It is unclear how fish
oil benefits acne?.
Fish Oil Benefits

The benefits for FISH OIL are summarized as follows:

High Triglycerides
Fish oil offers benefits of lowering high triglycerides. High triglycerides are linked to heart disease and untreated
diabetes. Keeping triglycerides below a certain level possibly reduce the risk of heart disease. Further, increasing
physical activity and restricting dietary fat also helps lower triglycerides. Medications such as gemfibrozil (Lopid) are
popularly used to lower the triglyceride levels. Now, intake of fish oil is found to be able to reduce triglyceride levels by
20% to 50%. Lovaza, a fish oil supplement, approved by the FDA, contains high pure levels of omega fatty acids.

Heart Disease
Because fish oil is able to lower the triglycerides, fish oil may also benefit people with healthy hearts free of heart
disease. People suffered from heart disease may be able to lower their risk of dying from heart disease by taking fish oil.
Though there are some arguments, fish oil may be even more effective in reducing death from heart attacks than statins.

The low incidence of reported heart attacks and cardiovascular-related deaths in Greenland Eskimos and the
Japanese has generated interest in the possible protective effect of their diet, which is made up primarily of fish
and related marine foods. [5] Several clinical studies have documented that intake of fish may reduce
mortality from coronary heart disease, and two epidemiological investigations have shown a 50%
reduction in the incidence of sudden death and of "primary cardiac arrest" in subjects eating fish. [28]
Other studies show that taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements can also decrease the risk and severity of
cardiovascular disease. [5, 6]

Low dosages of fish oil extract administration improves the function of platelet and red blood cells and may help
prevent cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects without any side effects. [26]

High Blood Pressure
Fish oil may benefit people with hypertension by reducing blood pressure. The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil may be
able to expand blood vessels, as to lower the blood pressure.

Rheumatoid arthritis
Fish oil by itself, or in combination with medications such as naproxen (Naprosyn), may benefit people with rheumatoid
arthritis by getting over morning stiffness faster. Taking fish oil can may also reduce the use of pain medications.

Menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea)
Taking fish oil alone or in combination with vitamin B12 may benefit people suffered from dysmenorrhea by improving
painful periods and reducing the need for pain medications.
Fish oil benefits
November 21, 2011   zhion@zhion.com
Fish Oil and Omega 3-fatty Acids
Omega 3 fatty acids and gamma linoleic acid are good fats, but we always have too little in our diets. Gamma linoleic acid can be found in borage
seed oil and evening primrose seed oil, while omega 3 fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes, and some plants oils such as flaxseed, olive and
canola oils.

Omega 3 fatty acid is a group of fatty acids characterized by a double bond that sits three carbons down from well documented anti-inflammatory
effects in vitro and have also been demonstrated to have health benefits in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular
disease, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, supporting their role in modulating inflammation in vivo. [2] Fishes that give good fats include Mackerel,
Herring, Sardines, Anchovies, Albacore tuna and Salmon. In general, the colder the water they live in, the more omega-3 oil in the fish.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Discuss with your doctor before taking any alternative medicine. This article is for reference only, it is not a medical advice. All rights reserved. Do not copy this
article to other website or blog.
REFERENCE
[1] Jatoi A Fish oil, lean tissue, and cancer: is there a role for eicosapentaenoic acid in treating the cancer
anorexia/weight loss syndrome? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2005 Jul;55(1):37-43. [2] Dunstan JA and Prescott SL Does fish
oil supplementation in pregnancy reduce the risk of allergic disease in infants? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005
Jun;5(3):215-21. [3] Oh R Practical applications of fish oil (Omega-3 fatty acids) in primary care. J Am Board Fam Pract.
2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):28-36. [4] Stephensen CB Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty
acid supplements? Nutr Rev. 2004 Dec;62(12):486-9. [5] Zeller FP and Spears C Fish oil: effectiveness as a dietary
supplement in the prevention of heart disease. Drug Intell Clin Pharm.1987 Jul-Aug;21(7-8):584-9. [6] Herold PM and
Kinsella JE Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: a comparison of findings from animal and
human feeding trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Apr;43(4):566-98. [23] In an open study of 3,958 hyperlipemic patients, 471
subjects supplemented with fish oil experienced gastrointestinal side effects. Kunzel U[Clinical experiences with a
standardized fish oil concentrate. Field study with 3,958 hyperlipemic patients in the practice of an established physician]
Fortschr Med. 1990 Jul 30;108(22):437-42. [24] Minor gastrointestinal side effects were reported in a study of fish oil
using 48 patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. Miller JP Triglyceride lowering effect of MaxEPA fish lipid concentrate (oil): a
multicentre placebo controlled double blind study. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Dec 30;178(3):251-9.[26] Terano T Changes in
fatty acid composition, platelet aggregability and RBC function in elderly subjects with administration of low-dose fish oil
concentrate and comparison with younger subjects Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 1994 Aug;31(8):596-603. [27]
Eilat-Adar S et al, Omega-3 fatty acids, fish, fish oil and cardiovascular disease--a review with implications to Israeli
nutritional guidelines Harefuah. 2004 Aug;143 (8):585-91, 622, 621. [28] Landmark K and Aursnes I Mercury, fish, fish oil
and the risk of cardiovascular disease Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Jan 22;124(2):198-200 [29] Vinot N, et al, PLoS
One. 2011;6(6):e20491. [A1] European Journal of Cancer Prevention 13(2): 159-164, June 2004] [A2] Yang ZH et al, J
Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jun 10.] [A3] Calon F, Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011 May 23] [A4] Solfrizzi V et al, Expert Rev
Neurother. 2011 May;11(5):677-708.] [B1] DeFina LF, Marcoux LG, Devers SM, Cleaver JP, Willis BL. Effects of omega-3
supplementation in combination with diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011
Feb;93(2):455-62 [B2] Weed HG, Ferguson ML, Gaff RL, Hustead DS, Nelson JL, Voss AC. Lean body mass gain in
patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer treated perioperatively with a protein- and energy-dense nutritional
supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid. Head Neck. 2011 Jul;33(7):1027-33. [B3] Cho JY, Chi SG, Chun HS. Oral
administration of docosahexaenoic acid attenuates colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice. Mol Nutr Food Res.
2011 Feb;55(2):239-46. [B4] Rubin MG, Kim K, Logan AC.Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report
of cases. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Oct 13;7:36. [B5] Brinson BE, Miller S. Fish Oil: What is the Role in Cardiovascular
Health? J Pharm Pract. 2011 Jun 6 [B6] Yamazaki RK, Brito GA, Coelho I, Pequitto DC, Yamaguchi AA, Borghetti G,
Schiessel DL, Kryczyk M, Machado J, Rocha RE, Aikawa J, Iagher F, Naliwaiko K, Tanhoffer RA, Nunes EA, Fernandes
LC. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese
rats.Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Apr 28;10:66. SOURCE
U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2011
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Taking fish oil seems to benefit 8 to 12 year-old children with ADHD by improving their thinking skills and behavior.

Raynaud’s syndrome
Taking fish oil may benefit some people with the usual form of Raynaud’s syndrome by improving their cold tolerance. But fish oil supplements do not
benefit people with Raynaud’s syndrome, in which the disease was caused by a condition called progressive systemic sclerosis.

Stroke
Moderate fish consumption (once or twice a week) may benefit people at risk of stoke by as much as 27%. However, eating fish does have this
benefit in people who are already taking aspirin for prevention. Very high fish consumption (more than 46 grams of fish per day) may increase stroke
risk, perhaps even double it.

Osteoporosis
Taking fish oil alone or in combination with calcium and evening primrose oil seems to offer benefits to seniors by slowing down bone loss rate and
increasing bone density at the thigh bone (femur) and spine.

Atherosclerosis
Fish oil seems to slow or slightly reverse the progress of atherosclerosis in the arteries serving the heart (coronary arteries), but not in the arteries
that bring blood up the neck to the head (carotid arteries).
Cancers
There are arguments about fish oil's benefits on patients suffered from cancers. A study of The Polyp Prevention Study
Group suggested that high intake of fish is associated with lower risk of adenoma recurrence. [A1] Further, mothers eat
fish or other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and nursing, the risk of breast cancer in their daughters
can be reduced by about 40%, a study of mice found. [Mom's Diet May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Daughters, Health
Day, April 20, 2005.]

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has received increasing attention as a therapy for the cancer anorexia/weight loss
syndrome. Multiple studies, including laboratory and preliminary clinical studies suggest this fish oil derivative may benefit
cancer patients. Other the other hand, three large comparative studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is
relatively ineffective for treating this syndrome. [1]

Metabolic Syndromes
Fish-oil-derived monounsaturated fatty acids improved glucose/lipid homeostasis and hindered the development of
metabolic syndrome in obese mice. [A2]

Memory and Cognitive Parameters
Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data have enlightened the possible benefits of n-3 PUFA in Alzheimer's disease.
[A3] But, we still consider that the scientific evidence for fish oil benefits on Alzheimer's disease is insufficient. However,
there is a good argument about fish oil benefits on cognitive functions.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFA)
are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments
(learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission
processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in
rodents. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA from fish oil supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive
performances in the adult mouse lemur. [29]

Fish Oil Supplements and Dosage
The optimal dosage of omega 3 fatty acid is not yet determined. However, fish oil dosage of 1 g has shown to reduce
overall and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Higher dosages may be used for
its potent triglyceride-lowering effects and for patients with rheumatoid arthritis to reduce non- steroidal anti-inflammatory
use. American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines committee to recommend to the general population the consumption
of the dosage -- at least two servings of fatty fish per week, in addition to vegetable oils high in alpha-linolenic acid. [27]
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation of infant formula has shown benefits in infant neural growth and development. [3,4]
Most commercial products of fish oil are in dosage form of softgels. The maximum dosage is about 3 g, total of EPA/DHA
per day. Be sure to check the labels: the label may say “1 g of fish oil” but it may contain a petite amount of EPA and
DHA. Look for high potency products, so you don’t need to take so many softgels a day.

To minimize the fish oil side effects such as belching and flatulence, one should avoid taking the entire dosage at one
time. Try splitting a 3 g daily dosage into three 1 g dosages, and take throughout the day with meals. Fish oil side effects
depend on the brand that you use, if you have trouble tolerating one fish oil supplement, try switching to another brand.