aniracetam
Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Reset, Spectrum_001342,
Tocris-0867,
Aniracetam is a pyrrolidinone-type cognition enhancer that has been clinically used in the
treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia following stroke and in
Alzheimer's disease. [1]

Aniracetam appears to positively modulate metabotropic glutamate receptors and
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-sensitive glutamate
receptors, and may facilitate cholinergic transmission. [2]

Results from early trials in elderly patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment due
to senile dementia of the Alzheimer type suggest that aniracetam may be of benefit.
Aniracetam 1500 mg/day was significantly more effective than placebo in all tests at 4
and 6 months, and in a further 6-month trial was more effective than piracetam 2400
mg/day in 8 of 18 tests. [2]

Preliminary evidence in the treatment of patients with cognitive impairment of
cerebrovascular origin suggests aniracetam may also be of benefit in this condition.
Whilst incidence rates of adverse effects are not yet available, data from trials suggest
aniracetam is well tolerated. [2]

In a study, ethanol, administered orally at a moderate dose (4 g/kg/24 h; 38% v/v) during
the entire course of pregnancy, caused severe cognitive deficits in offspring. Furthermore,
both progeny genders were affected by a spectrum of behavioral abnormalities, such as a
delay in the development of the righting reflex, poor novelty seeking behavior, and high
anxiety levels in female rats. Administration of aniracetam for 10 days (post-natal days
(PND) 18-27), at a dose of 50 mg/kg reversed cognitive deficits in both rat genders,
indicated by a significant increase in the number of avoidances and the number of 'good
learners'. [3]

Reference

[1]Nakamura K. Aniracetam: its novel therapeutic potential in cerebral dysfunctional
disorders based on recent pharmacological discoveries. CNS Drug Rev. 2002
Spring;8(1):70-89. [2] Lee CR, Benfield P. Aniracetam. An overview of its
pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic
potential in senile cognitive disorders. Drugs Aging. 1994 Mar;4(3):257-73. [3] Vaglenova
J, Pandiella N, Wijayawardhane N, Vaithianathan T, Birru S, Breese C, Suppiramaniam
V, Randal C. Aniracetam reversed learning and memory deficits following prenatal
ethanol exposure by modulating functions of synaptic AMPA receptors.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Apr;33(5):1071-83. Epub 2007 Jul 4.

[1A] http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Aniracetam is an antidepressive agent and an nootropic agent.

Antidepressive agents are mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective
disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as
antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine
levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS,
TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group
(ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that
act specifically on serotonergic systems.

Nootropic agents are drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to
prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of
mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are
being actively investigated. [1A]
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