Rice Bran    Nutrition values AND BENEFITS
Phytonutrients from rice bran have shown promising
disease-preventing and health-related benefits in experimental
research studies. The phytonutrients that have been studied include
include inositol and related compounds, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6
or phytate), rice oil, ferulic acid, gamma-oryzanol, plant sterols,
tocotrienols and RICEO, a new rice-bran-derived product. These
compounds may benefit conditions including cancer, hyperlipidemia,
fatty liver, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, and heart disease. [5]

Rice Bran Oil

The available data in humans suggest that rice bran oil (RBO) is an
edible oil of preference for improving plasma lipid and lipoprotein
profiles similar to more commonly used vegetable oils. Rice bran oil
and its main components (unsaturated fatty acids, triterpene alcohols,
phytosterols, tocotrienols, alpha-tocopherol) have demonstrated an
ability to improve the plasma lipid profiles in animal and human
studies, reducing total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride
concentration and increasing the high density lipoprotein cholesterol
level. [3,4, 8]

Other potential benefits of rice bran oil and gamma-oryzanol include
modulation of pituitary secretion, inhibition of gastric acid secretion,
antioxidant action and inhibition of platelet aggregation. [3,4,7, 8]

Tocotrienols

Rice bran, corn, soybean, palm, barley oils and olive oils are rich in
tocotrienols. Tocotrienols are formerly known as zeta- or
eta-tocopherols, and they are structurally and functionally similar to
tocopherols. [1]

Vitamin E is a generic term for all tocopherols and their derivatives
having the biological activity of RRR-alpha-tocopherol  And, they are
alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol; and alpha-, beta-,
gamma- and delta-tocotrienol. [1]

Similar to Vitamin E, tocotrienols have many potential health benefits.
Tocotrienols possess powerful antioxidant, anticancer, and
cholesterol-lowering effects. Alpha-tocotrienol has been found to be
multi-fold more potent than alpha-tocopherol in protecting HT4 and
primary neuronal cells against toxicity induced by toxins such as
glutamate. At very low concentration, tocotrienol, but not tocopherol,
can still protect neurons by an antioxidant-independent mechanism.
[1, 2, 7]

Gamma-oryzanol

Gamma-oryzanol, a natural andioxidant, is a mixture of ferulic acid
esters of sterol and triterpene alcohols. It is about 1-2% in rice bran
oil. Study has shown its benefit on lowering cholesterol levels and risk
of coronary heart disease.  [6, 7, 8]

Fibers

Fibers in foods are complex carbohydrates. Weisburger JH and
co-workers at American Health Foundation, NY, classified them into
soluble and insoluble fibers. [9]

Soluble fibers are present in fruits, vegetables, and certain grains.
This type of fiber undergoes metabolism in the small intestine and
especially in the large intestine through bacterial enzymes. During
their metabolism, they produce detoxified products, reducing the risk
of colon carcinogenesis.

While, insoluble fibers present in wheat or rice bran, are not
significantly metabolized by intestinal enzymes. These insoluble fibers
increase stool size though higher water retention and other
mechanisms. The larger bulk dilutes carcinogens resulting in lower
risk of colon cancer. In theory, increased intake of total fiber to yield a
daily stool can reduce the risk of colon cancer. [9]

Protein

Chavan JK and Kadam SS. from Mahatma Phule Agricultural
University, India, consider rice bran as a vegetable protein sources for
nutritional enrichment of the bakery products. [10] Rice bran contains
multiple forms of lipases that causes rapid deterioration of oil to free
fatty acids and glycerol. [11]

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RIGHTS RESERVED 2008. Discuss with your doctor before taking
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[1] Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S. Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to
defend the nervous system? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004
Dec;1031:127-42. [2] Sun W, Yan Y, Dong F. Progression of
tocotrienols Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004 Mar;33(2):243-5. [3] Cicero AF,
Gaddi A. Rice bran oil and gamma-oryzanol in the treatment of
hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions. Phytother Res. 2001
Jun;15(4):277-89. [4] Sugano M, Koba K, Tsuji E. Health benefits of
rice bran oil. Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5A):3651-7. [5]
Jariwalla RJ. Rice-bran products: phytonutrients with potential
applications in preventive and clinical medicine. Drugs Exp Clin Res.
2001;27(1):17-26. [6] Scavariello EM, Arellano DB. Gamma-oryzanol:
an important component in rice brain oilArch Latinoam Nutr. 1998
Mar;48(1):7-12. [7] Sugano M, Tsuji E. Rice bran oil and cholesterol
metabolism. J Nutr. 1997 Mar;127(3):521S-524S. [8] Sugano M, Tsuji
E. Rice bran oil and human health. Biomed Environ Sci. 1996
Sep;9(2-3):242-6. [9] Weisburger JH, et al, Protective mechanisms of
dietary fibers in nutritional carcinogenesis. Basic Life Sci.
1993;61:45-63. [10] Chavan JK and Kadam SS. Nutritional enrichment
of bakery products by supplementation with nonwheat flours. Crit Rev
Food Sci Nutr. 1993;33(3):189-226. [11] Prakash J. Rice bran proteins:
properties and food uses. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1996
Jul;36(6):537-52.
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