Apple Juice, Nutrition values AND BENEFITS - Alzheimer's Disease  
Dr. Jan Oszmianski at the Agricultural University of Wroclaw found that cloudy apple juices contain much more
antioxidant than clear. Cloudy apple juice contained up to four times the level of polyphenols. Polyphenols are
antioxidant plant compounds. Cloudy juice from Champion apples turned out to be the most antioxidant-rich. [1]

Apple is an antioxidant-rich fruit. In a study, 2 weeks dietary intervention study was carried out in 25 healthy subjects to
investigate the influences of apple juices consumption on body antioxidant status. Results indicated that 2 weeks of
apple juice consumption increased the plasma T-AOC and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde. However,
no change was found in the content of plasma carbonyl. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were
enhanced by 2 weeks of fruit juice consumption; however, no change was found in the activity of erythrocyte superoxide
dismutase. The in vitro comet assay results indicated that apple juice consumption did not influence lymphocyte damage
upon hydrogen peroxide treatment. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine content was not affected by 2 weeks of fruit
juice intervention. These findings indicated that concomitant intake of apple and grape juice was efficient in enhancing
the body's antioxidant status. [Yuan L, et al, Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Jun 6.]

What are the health benefits of drinking apple juice?
Preclinical studies demonstrate that apple juice exerts multiple beneficial effects including reduction of central nervous
system oxidative damage, suppression of Alzheimer's disease hallmarks, improved cognitive performance, and
organized synaptic signaling.

Gain-of-function mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS-1) promote Alzheimer's disease (AD) by increasing reactive oxygen
species, at least part of which is derived by an accompanying increase in generation of amyloid-beta (Abeta).
Supplementation with apple juice concentrate was observed to attenuate or prevent the increase of PS-1 expression in
juvenile and adult normal mice. [2]

Apple juice containing high amounts of antioxidative polyphenols might protect the intestine against oxidative cell
damage. [3]

In an open-label clinical trial, 21 institutionalized individuals with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease consumed 2
4-oz glasses of apple juice daily for 1 month. Participants demonstrated no change in the Dementia Rating Scale, and
institutional caregivers reported no change in
Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study -Activities of Daily Living in this
brief study. However, caregivers reported an approximate 27% improvement in behavioral and psychotic symptoms
associated with dementia as quantified by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, with the largest changes in anxiety, agitation,
and delusion. This pilot study suggests that apple juice may be a useful supplement, perhaps to augment
pharmacological approaches, for attenuating the decline in mood that accompanies progression of Alzheimer's disease,
which may also reduce caregiver burden. [Remington R, et al, Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010
Jun;25(4):367-71. ]

Reference
[1] "Cloudy" apple juice packs more antioxidants Reuters, Jan 15, 2007. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,
online January 15, 2005. [2] Chan A, Shea TB. Supplementation with apple juice attenuates presenilin-1 overexpression
during dietary and genetically-induced oxidative stress. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Dec;10(4):353-8 [3] Schaefer S, et al,
Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines. Mol
Nutr Food Res. 2006 Jan;50(1):24-33
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