Country music icon Glen Campbell has been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Campbell, 75, was
diagnosed six months ago with the degenerative disease. [ABC News, June 22, 2011]
Alzheimer's Disease affects an estimated 4.5 million Americans. It starts out with mild memory loss and
confusion. It is an incurable and leads to destroy of the brain leaving patients helpless and death. Former US
President Ronald Reagan died with Alzheimer's, was diagnosed 10 years ago.

Alzheimer's disease symptoms and Alzheimer's disease stages
Alzheimer's disease was first described by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906. It is a disorder that
causes the gradual loss of brain cells, leading to dementia. Dementia is collection term for several symptoms
related to a decline in thinking skills, including a gradual loss of memory, problems with reasoning or judgment,
disorientation, difficulty in learning and loss of language skills. Alzheimer's disease advances at different rates
for different people. The duration of the illness may vary from a few years to 20 years. The areas of the brain
that control memory and thinking skills are affected first. Then, cells die in other regions of the brain.
Eventually, the patient will need complete care. If the individual has no other serious illness, the loss of brain
function itself will cause death.
alzheimer's disease symptoms, treatment, stages, prevention and causes  
updated on September 1, 2011
Alzheimer's disease prevention - Exercise

Exercise affects the size of hippocampus
Dr. Robyn A. Honea at the University of Kansas found that patients with early Alzheimer's disease who
exercised regularly had less deterioration in the areas of the brain which control memory. [1] The
researchers found that patients with early Alzheimer's had a "significant relationship" between the size of
hippocampus, unlike healthy older adults. Those patients with better fitness ratings had less brain tissue
atrophy and those with worse fitness had more brain damage. [1]

Exercise reduces the amount of brain volume lost.
Dr Jeffrey Burns, from the University of Kansas School of Medicine, said, "People with early Alzheimer's
disease may be able to preserve their brain function for a longer period of time by exercising regularly and
potentially reducing the amount of brain volume lost. Decreasing brain volume is tied to poorer cognitive
performance. [2]

"Brain Exercise" may also be a preventive measure.
For older people with a minimal experience, performing Internet searches for even a relatively short period of
time can change brain activity patterns and enhance function. Mental stimulation through brain training
activities can increase the efficiency of cognitive processing and slow this decline in brain function. The
middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus are involved in working memory and decision-making skills.
When performing an Internet search, people make use of the ability to hold information in working memory
and extract important points among distracting graphics and words. Thus, internet searches may retard
aging. [4]

Alzheimer's disease prevention - Diet and Food
A diet with mainly fruits and vegetables is likely reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. While,
mice fed meals similar to those of the original Atkin's Diet had brains five per cent lighter than all the others!
Hippocampus were less developed in animals on the high protein diet High protein diets are used for weight
control, and those diets sometimes combine high fat and high protein, which may be doubly damaging, if the
high fat increases the accumulation of plaques (a manifest in Alzheimer's disease) and the high protein
sensitizes nerve cells to the poison released by plaques." [5] Omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids,
vitamin E, vitamin B12 and
folate benefit the brain and diet with more oil-based salad dressing, nuts, fish,
tomatoes, poultry, cruciferous vegetables such as
broccoli, fruits, and dark and green leafy vegetables lower
the risk to develop the disease. [6]

Drinking fruit and vegetable juices may possibly reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, as these drinks
usually contain antioxidants. But, fruit juices usually contain a high content of sugar and vegetable juices
may contain sodium.

Coffee, four to five cups a day, appears to be able to counteract the brain pathology and memory
impairment in Alzheimer's mice. According to the recent news, coffee decreases the risk of Alzheimer's
disease by boosting the level of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF). Usually, GCSF levels are
greatly decreased in Alzeimer's patients. [MyHealthNewsDaily - ‎Jun 21, 2011‎]

Alzheimer's disease prevention - Living Environment
Men and women living with a partner in mid-life are less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease and other forms
of age-related dementia. An active lifestyle that includes a spouse or life partner is generally more socially
and intellectually stimulating than a solitary lifestyle.People with a spouse or partner in mid-life are 50% less
likely to develop age-related dementia than people alone in mid-life. Death of a spouse or partner before
middle age seemed to have the most serious consequences where Alzheimer’s disease and dementia are
concerned. [3]

Alzheimer's disease symptoms signs Outward symptoms start with memory loss, which progresses to
complete helplessness as brain cells are destroyed. In the brain, neurons die as messy plaques and tangles
of protein form.A recent study of 444 people, of whom 134 suffered from dementia, suggests that a decline
in spatial skills, such as reading a map or completing a jigsaw, may appear years before diagnosis. The
participants underwent a battery of various mental skills tests and the researchers found that the
visuospatial skills - required to perceive the distance between objects - began to decline sharply three years
before diagnosis. A sharp decline in memory skills may appear until one year before clinical diagnosis. [C1]
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Alzheimer's disease causes

Risk Factors
Risk Factors for Alzheimer's disease include age, family history, intoxication (e.g. quinolinic acid) [13],
disease conditions such as diabetes [7] inflammation, high insulin level, [10] high blood pressure and high
cholesterol. Big Blood pressure drop may also lead to Alzheimer's [A1]. The disease is highly related to
amyloid plaques.

Daydreaming may not be a cause for Alzheimer's Disease, but it is related
Researchers studied the brain activity of 764 people, including those suffered from Alzheimer's disease,
those with dementia and healthy individuals. They found that the areas of the brain that young, healthy
people use when daydreaming are the same areas that fail in people suffered from Alzheimer's disease. [12]

Alzheimer's disease treatment

Medical Treatment
Medical Treatment includes cholinesterase inhibitors, Vitamin E, antidepressant, anxiolytics and
antipsychotics. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are first-line medications for the treatment of Alzheimer
disease, and are associated with mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily
living; however, the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear. The most common adverse effects of
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac arrhythmias.
Short-term use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine can modestly improve measures
of cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease.
Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well
tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Atypical
antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality
rates in older patients with dementia. [14]

Nutrients, Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements
Certain herbal / nutritional supplements may potentially benefit some people at risk of Alzheimer's disease,
but none of them are really qualified as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, they come with
various side effects. Popular supplements for Alzheimer's disease include:

Ginkgo biloba/ginseng  may benefit some people at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, but it takes 3-
6 months to see the effects.

Niacin may have a beneficial effect. [A2]

Huperzine A has undergone double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's
disease with significant improvements both to cognitive function and the quality of life.
Green tea (EGCG) may have a positive effects. [11]

Acetyl-L carnitine poses unique neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, and neurotrophic properties.

Hydroxytyrosol accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid; consequently, it has access to the cells in the
central nervous system. Researchers found an increase of the total
antioxidant activity of cerebrospinal fluid after oral administration of hyroxytyrosol in rats Since hydroxytyrosol
is a potent antioxidant and monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) inhibitor and it can freely enter into the
cerebrospinal fluid, hydroxytyrosol can be beneficial in Alzheimer's,
Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Polygonum multiflorum may benefit people at risk of Alzheimer's disease, as polygonum multiflorum was
shown to improve the fluidity of mitochondria membrane in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

Pycnogenol had anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. Pycnogenol may be useful for the
prevention and/or treatment of vascular or neurodegenerative diseases associated with Abeta toxicity.

Wolfberry A test-tube study showed that a fraction of polysaccharide from Wolfberry exerted significant
neuroprotective effects on cultured cortical neurons exposed to glutamate. Glutamate excitotoxicity is
involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This fraction of polysaccharide
has also been shown to protect rat cortical neurons against beta beta-amyloid.

Acetylcholine may also help to a certain extent.

Drug Trials
Aricept shows ability to slow down the onset of Alzheimer's patients. [8] Dimebon was once used to treat
hayfever significantly improves symptoms in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. It is not clear
exactly how the drug works but it has been shown in animals to have a protective effect on nerve cells in the
brain. [9]


[1] Study: Exercise slows Alzheimer's brain atrophy AP July 28 2008- [2] Exercise 'slows down Alzheimer's'
BBC 14 July 2008 [3]  Life With a Partner Minimizes Alzheimer’s Risk By MedHeadlines • Aug 2nd, 2008 •
Category: Alzheimer's Disease, Lifestyle, Medical Research, Neurology [4] Gary Small Older People Get
Brain Boost From Interne tWebMD Health News Oct. 19, 2009 [5] Sam Gandy High protein diets 'could cause
Alzheimer's'   Telegraph.co.uk21 Oct 2009 [C1]  Memory not first Alzheimer's sign  BBC October 2009 08:29
UK [6] Gu Y, Luchsinger JA, Stern Y, Scarmeas N. Food Combination and Alzheimer's disease (AD): a
protective diet - Reply. Archives of Neurology, 2010 [A1] Ed Edelson, HealthDay, Jul 1, 2004.A [A2] Anthony
J. Brown, MD, Niacin may protect against Alzheimer's, Reuters, Jul 15, 2004 [7] Form of Diabetes Increases
Risk of Alzheimer's Disease, HEALTH-AFP, May 17, 2004. [8] New Drug Helping to Slow Down Onset of
Alzheimer's Disease, Voice of America, April 14, 2005. [9] Alzheimer's drug trial 'promise' BBC July 18 2008
[10] Fishel MA et al Hyperinsulinemia Provokes Synchronous Increases in Central Inflammation and {beta}-
Amyloid in Normal Adults.Arch Neurol. 2005 Aug 8 2005 [11] Green Tea Compound Stops Alzheimer's in
Mice HealthDay Online Publication, September 21, 2005 [12] Daydreaming linked to Alzheimer's Los Angeles
Time, CA, Online Publication, Aug 29 2005. [13] Alzheimer's toxin may be key to slowing disease Reuters 04
Aug 2005 08:34:53 GMT [14] Winslow BT, Onysko MK, Stob CM, Hazlewood KA. Treatment of Alzheimer
disease. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Jun 15;83(12):1403-12.
Deborah Barnes and Dr. Kristine Yaffe of the University of California San Francisco reported: that 10-25
percent reduction in seven risk factors for dementia, such as diabetes, midlife hypertension, midlife obesity,
smoking, depression, lack of mental stimulation, and physical inactivity, may prevent as many as 492,000 cases
of Alzheimer's disease over the next 40 years. [MedPage Today.com July 19, 2011]
Alzheimer's Disease prevention